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Description| What is the technology that powers hybrid electric vehicles?

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What are the pros and cons of hybrid electric vehicles? How are they different from regular EVs?

What are the pros and cons of hybrid electric vehicles? How are they different from regular EVs?

Story so far: In recent months, automakers Maruti Suzuki, Toyota and Honda have launched hybrid electric vehicles in India, giving car buyers more choice in the nascent electric vehicle market. These new hybrid electric vehicles from various automakers are changing the mindset of car buyers, relying on hybrid technology and its advantages over traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles.

What is a hybrid electric vehicle?

A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) uses an ICE (gasoline/diesel engine) and one or more electric motors to propel itself. It is powered exclusively by electric motors using energy stored in batteries, ICE, or both. HEV powertrains are more complex than normal ICE-equipped vehicles, with EV components and traditional ICE. This means that a typical HEV has a low-voltage auxiliary battery, a traction battery pack that stores electricity for the electric motor, a generator, an AC/DC converter, a power electronics controller, a thermal system that maintains operating temperature, an ICE, and a fuel tank. , fuel filler, transmission, exhaust system.

How does the HEV powertrain work?

HEV powertrains are designed to power vehicles in series, parallel, or series-parallel (power split) schemes. Series HEVs use only electric motors to drive the wheels, while the ICE powers the generator, which charges the battery. A parallel HEV uses the most suitable power source to power the vehicle depending on the driving situation. It alternates between electric motors and ICE to keep the car moving.

The Series-Parallel HEV offers a combination of both models, allowing for power splitting, routing power from the ICE alone or from the battery to the electric motor to drive the vehicle. Additionally, in all three designs the battery is charged by regenerative braking technology.

How does regenerative braking work?

Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) used in automotive applications have several advantages, such as better braking efficiency in stop-and-go traffic, better fuel economy, and also help reduce carbon emissions. Additionally, RBS helps with energy optimization, minimizing energy waste.

Based on the type of RBS, energy recovery occurs in multiple ways. The dynamic system recovers the energy lost during braking and can use this energy to recharge the vehicle’s high-voltage battery. The electrical system generates electricity through the motor during hard braking. Finally, hydraulic systems can use pressurized tanks to store the vehicle’s kinetic energy, providing high energy recovery rates ideal for heavy-duty vehicles.

The efficiency of HEVs and EVs is primarily determined by their ability to recover as much energy as possible during braking. The higher the degree of energy recovery, the lower the fuel consumption. The amount of recoverable energy depends on factors such as vehicle speed and stopping patterns. Adoption of regenerative braking technology in the automotive industry is increasing due to vehicle operating efficiency through reduced fuel consumption and extended battery range.

Maruti Suzuki, Toyota, and Honda are introducing HEVs with multiple powertrain options, including the Self-Charging Strong Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SHEV), which uses RBS to self-charge the HEV. According to a study by iCAT, a government testing agency, a SHEV can drive 40% of the distance and 60% of the time as an EV with the gasoline engine off.

Regenerative braking systems are already available in most EVs, but the technology is also used in electric trains. Rail transport can be explained by the frequent acceleration and braking of trains at many stations. This further improves energy efficiency by increasing the potential for braking energy recovery using energy storage systems that can recover and reuse braking energy from metro vehicles. Some of the energy consumption of trains can be saved by using traction systems that allow regenerative braking.

What types of HEVs are there?

HEVs can be classified as micro, mild, and full hybrid vehicles based on the degree of hybridization. The hybrid variants of Maruti Suzuki’s Grand Vitara and Toyota’s Urban Cruiser High Rider can be categorized into full hybrids and mild hybrids.

Full HEVs have larger batteries and more powerful electric motors compared to mild HEVs. As a result, full HEVs can power the vehicle for long distances using only electric mode, while mild HEVs cannot use only the electric motor to drive and can be driven at traffic lights or stop-and-go. Support ICE with batteries in transportation. The micro-hybrid does not have an electric torque assist as it does not have an electric motor, but it does have an idling stop-start system and energy management functions. The full HEV gets better gas mileage than his other two HEVs, but it’s also more expensive.

Then there are plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is similar to a full HEV, but has an on-board charger and a charging port so it can be charged using a wall outlet. PHEVs generally use the electric motor until the battery is almost dead, then automatically switch to ICE. PHEVs will account for about 23% of the 1.95 million EV shipments worldwide in the first quarter of 2022, according to market research firm Counterpoint.

What are the main advantages of using hybrid technology?

Fuel economy is an important factor for most people considering buying a car. Most vehicles with hybrid technology will have better fuel efficiency, more power and minimal emissions. The design of hybrid vehicles to reduce engine size and vehicle weight compared to ICE vehicles leads to increased mileage to support the demand for these vehicles.In addition, increased total power and torque. Along with this, HEVs can provide instantaneous torque and high torque even at low speeds.

What are the challenges of hybrid technology?

In a price sensitive market like India, one of the main challenges for HEVs is the high cost of the vehicle. A critical component in HEVs, the battery adds to the vehicle’s cost, making it more expensive than a vehicle powered solely by an ICE. RBS also makes HEVs more expensive.

Are HEVs helping the automotive industry transition from ICE vehicles to EVs?

The automotive industry is increasingly interested in hybrid and battery electric vehicles (BEV or EV). Meanwhile, rising fossil fuel prices, increased adoption of clean mobility solutions, and stringent government emission standards are driving the growth of the global EV market.

“SHEV will not only reduce fossil fuel consumption, carbon emissions and pollution, but also by creating a local EV component manufacturing ecosystem, while preserving the existing huge investments and jobs associated with ICE component manufacturing. Uninterrupted technology transition,” said Vikram Gulati, EVP of Toyota Kirloskar Motor. hindu.

He added, “SHEV adoption will also accelerate BEV adoption. These technologies have common electric powertrain components, which will help consolidate demand at the locally-manufactured component level. It helps reduce costs and create a viable ecosystem for electric vehicles.”

gist

A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) uses an ICE (gasoline/diesel engine) and one or more electric motors to propel itself. It is powered exclusively by electric motors using energy stored in batteries, ICE, or both.

A HEV’s efficiency is determined by its ability to recover as much energy as possible during braking. The higher the degree of energy recovery, the lower the fuel consumption. The regenerative braking system (RBS) improves fuel efficiency while also helping to optimize energy, minimizing energy waste.

HEVs can be classified as micro, mild, and full hybrid vehicles based on the degree of hybridization. The hybrid variants of Maruti Suzuki’s Grand Vitara and Toyota’s Urban Cruiser High Rider can be categorized into full hybrids and mild hybrids.

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